Temperature, light and moisture affect the growth and development of plants and pests. Of these, temperature is the most important factor for insect and mite development. These pests need a certain amount of heat to move to the next development stage.
The amount of heat required for insect and mite development remains constant from year to year, but depending on weather conditions, the amount of actual time that it takes to complete development can vary
Insects and mites have a minimum and maximum base temperature below or above which development does not occur. These base temperatures are different for each organism. For example, the minimum base temperature for codling moth, oriental fruit moth and obliquebanded leafroller (summer generation) is 10°C, 7.2°C and 6.1°C, respectively.
Degree-Days Celcius (DDC) are used to estimate the growth and development of pests in the growing season. Events such as egg-laying, egg hatch, movement of crawlers or the occurrence of disease infection can be predicted and used to schedule inspection and spray programs. For example, degree-day calculations can predict the first hatch of codling moth eggs or the percentage of apple scab ascospores that have matured in the orchard.
There are several methods used to calculate DDC, but the method commonly used with simple monitoring equipment is the averaging method or “max/min” method. DDC for a given organism are calculated as follows:
DDC = (Daily max °C)+(Daily min °C) / 2 – minimum base temperature
Degree-Days Celcius are accumulated daily. The averaging method works well in most years. However, the actual DDC accumulations may be underestimated in extended periods of cool weather or overestimated in hot weather.
An example of the averaging method on a relatively cool spring day:
For a given pest:
Lower base temperature = 10°C
Upper base temperature = 35°C
On a given day:
Minimum temperature = 5°C
Maximum temperature = 15°C
Degree-Days Celcius (DDC) for that day is = (maximum + minimum temperature) / 2 – lower base temperature = (15+5) / 2 – 10 = 0 DDC
Note that the maximum temperature was higher than the base temperature for the insect, so growth and development were possible for at least part of the day. However, no DDC were accumulated. This illustrates how cool temperatures, especially over several days, could lead to an underestimation of insect development.
Degree-Days Celcius are either accumulated from a set start date, such as April 1, or from a specific event known as a biofix. A biofix is a biological event or indicator of a developmental event, that initiates the beginning of DDC calculations. A common biofix used for insects is the first sustained catch in pheromone traps. Using a biofix provides predictions that are more accurate and requires tracking temperatures over a shorter period.
There are several limitations to degree-days models:
- Factors such as humidity, light intensity and rainfall also affect pest development. As a result, DDC predictions are only estimates of pest development. Verify these predictions with field observations.
- Temperatures used to determine DDC must represent the environment where organisms develop. Use weather data collected from within a mile or less of the actual orchard or field being monitored. Site specific information can be obtained by using data loggers. Ventilated heat shields should be used with temperature sensors data loggers to ensure accurate air temperatures. Place data loggers at locations in the crop where the pest is normally active.
- DDC models have been developed and validated for only a few fruit pests in Ontario. Use precise temperature data measured on or very close to your farm for the best estimate of the development of these pests.