Pre-plant soil fumigation is the most effective method of controlling fungal, weed and nematode problems. Fumigants can be broadcast over the whole field or applied only in bands where crop will be planted. Tree-row application, or the treatment of a 2.0–2.5 m strip centred on the row, is more economical, but requires good planning. However, broadcast fumigation will reduce the risk of re-contamination if non-fumigated soil is mixed into the fumigated strip.
For products, rates and other information on fumigants, refer to Table 4–2. Products for Management of Nematodes and Other Soil-borne Pests.
Application of Fumigants Before Planting
Most fumigants are applied by shank injection using specialized application equipment. Some formulations of metam sodium can be applied to the soil surface and watered in. See the product label for application instructions.
- Fumigate when soil temperatures are above 4°C at 20 cm depth. Warmer temperatures (15°C and over) are preferred for more rapid fumigant dispersal in the soil. Fumigation in the early fall before planting is best for fruit crops which are planted in early spring when soils are still cool.
- Land preparation is critical for effective fumigant application. Fumigants cannot easily penetrate large clumps of soil and organic matter. Remove trash and old root systems. One week prior to fumigation, work the soil to a depth of 25–30 cm and obtain good seedbed tilth and moisture. Keep soil moist and if necessary, irrigate the treated area during the week prior to fumigation. A light cultivation immediately before fumigation may be necessary if a soil crust has developed.
- Soil moisture in the top 15–20 cm must be at the level stipulated by the fumigant label prior to and during fumigation. If soil moisture is not sufficient, it must be adjusted before product application can occur. For best results, keep the soil surface moist during application and for 24 hours after application.
- Seal the soil surface immediately after injection of the fumigant. The best method for sealing the soil is covering it with tarps, however, rolling or cultipacking immediately behind the fumigant applicator can also be used. Some fumigants have specific requirements for sealing the soil-consult product labels to determine what is legally permissible for the fumigant and type of application. Light watering after application will further prevent the escape of fumigant from the soil.
- Leave soil undisturbed for at least 1 week after injection of the fumigant. Colder soils (below 15°C) require longer periods from injection to aeration.
- Work the soil and aerate for about a week before planting. For fall planting, work the soil and aerate for 2 weeks before planting. The time interval between fumigation and planting into fumigated soil depends upon the product used, the rate and the temperature following fumigation (consult product label).
- Use high-quality planting stock, preferably grown in fumigated soil. Nursery operators can provide information on how to manage nematodes.
- Always read the product label. All fumigant labels now contain detailed Good Agricultural Practices for soil conditions, sealing, application and re-entry. These are mandatory and must be followed for all fumigant applications.
Fumigating Single-Tree Sites Before Planting Replacement Trees
When trees are replanted within an existing orchard, nematodes and diseases can be controlled in the planting hole using Vapam or Busan before planting. Refer to the product label for application details, rates and safety precautions.